Neurotransmitters

Drugs And Neurotransmitters


Alcohol effects are similar to increasing GABA and dopamine levels, while reducing the effect of glutamate, especially on NMDA receptors.
--- GABA receptor agonist.
--- Dopamine releasing agent.
--- Glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist.

Amanita muscaria (fly agaric mushroom) effects are similar to increasing GABA and glutamate levels.
--- GABA-A receptor agonist
--- Glutamate NMDA receptor agonist
--- Selective metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist.

Amphetamine (dextroamphetamine, levoamphetamine) effects are primarily from increased levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin.
--- Dopamine releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor.
--- Norepinephrine releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor.
--- Serotonin releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor.

Barbiturates bind to and trigger barbiturate sites on GABA-A receptors, while increasing the potency of GABA. They also block glutamate AMPA and kainate receptors. These effects are similar to increasing GABA and decreasing glutamate levels.
--- Selective GABA-A receptor agonist.
--- Selective glutamate receptor antagonist.

Benzodiazepines bind to and trigger benzodiazepine sites on GABA-A receptors, while increasing the potency of GABA. The effects of taking benzodiazepines very similar to increasing GABA levels.
--- Selective GABA-A receptor agonist.

Cannabis (marijuana, hash, hash oil) primarily acts upon cannabinoid receptors. Also affects dopamine, glycine, serotonin. Affects opioid receptors to produce analgesia. Might act as either agonist or antagonist on different GABA receptors. Can affect norepinephrine.
--- Acts primarily upon cannabinoid receptors.
--- Indirectly increases dopamine levels.
--- Can affect serotonin levels.
--- Increases the potency of the neurotransmitter glycine.
--- Allosteric modulator of mu and delta opioid receptors.
--- Possible selective GABA receptor agonist/antagonist.
--- Can affect norepinephrine.

Cocaine is a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin. It makes dopamine more potent, and may do the same for norepinephrine. Effects are similar to increasing dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin levels.
--- Dopamine reuptake inhibitor.
--- Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.
--- Serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
--- Increases potency of dopamine.
--- May increase potency of norepinephrine.

Ketamine is a glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist and a glutamate AMPA receptor agonist. It indirectly acts as a antagonist of acetylcholine nACh receptors. Ketamine is a dopamine D2 receptor, and mild opioid, agonist. It also inhibits reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin.
--- Glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist.
--- Glutamate AMPA receptor agonist.
--- Indirect acetylcholine nACh receptor antagonist.
--- Dopamine D2 receptor agonist.
--- Mild opioid receptor agonist.
--- Dopamine reuptake inhibitor.
--- Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.
--- Serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

LSD binds to and triggers dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate receptors. Effects are similar to increasing levels of these neurotransmitters. Psychedelic effects might be related to certain serotonin receptors, and increasing glutamate release in the cerebral cortex.
--- Dopamine agonist.
--- Epinephrine agonist.
--- Norepinephrine agonist.
--- Serotonin agonist.
--- Glutamate agonist.

MDMA (ecstasy) causes an increase in the release of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin. It may also increase the release of another neurotransmitter known as oxytocin.
--- Dopamine releasing agent.
--- Norepinephrine releasing agent.
--- Serotonin releasing agent.
--- May act as an oxytocin releasing agent.

Methamphetamine (similar to amphetamine) effects are primarily from increased levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin.
--- Dopamine releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor.
--- Norepinephrine releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor.
--- Serotonin releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor.

Methaqualone (quaalude) binds to and triggers GABA neuroreceptors in the brain and nervous system. Effects are similar to increasing GABA levels.
--- GABA agonist.

Opioids primarily act on opioid receptors. They also increase the release of dopamine. Opioids may also reduce the amount of GABA that is released and/or the effect of GABA.
--- Act primarily upon opioid receptors.
--- Dopamine releasing agent.
--- May inhibit the release of GABA.
--- May act as a GABA antagonist.
--- May act as a norepinephrine releasing agent.
--- May act as a norepinephrine antagonist.
Depending on the individual, and the type of opioid, they can either increase the release of norepinephrine or reduce the effect of norepinephrine. If opioids increase the release of norepinephrine you will feel more energetic. If they reduce the effect of norepinephrine (antagonist) you will feel less energetic.

PCP (phencyclidine) is an acetylcholine nicotinic (nACh) receptor antagonist and a glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist. It reduces the effects of both acetylcholine and glutamate.
--- Acetylcholine nicotinic (nACh) receptor antagonist.
--- Glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist.


Conclusion

A neurotransmitter is a chemical that transmits impulses from nerve cells (neurons) to neurotransmitter receptors (neuroreceptors) on other nerve cells, gland cells, or muscle cells. They play a primary role on how we think, feel, move.

Above are some drugs and the neurotransmitters that they are known to have a major influence upon. Although the neurotransmitters listed have a big impact, they are not the only factors.

There are multiple additional internal bodily processes involved, and probably additional neurotransmitters. The varying degrees of the influence drugs have on neurotransmitters and bodily processes give each drug its unique effects.

Just because a drug increases certain neurotransmitters doesn't mean other drugs that increase the same neurotransmitters will have the exact same effect. There may be similarities, but overall the experience will be different.

Dose size can play a role on which neurotransmitters are affected. As the dose size increases or decreases, additional neurotransmitter receptors may be activated and/or the effects of other neurotransmitters may be reduced or minimized.

If you are quitting a particular drug, another drug or supplement with similar qualities may help you through the withdrawal process. For instance, a substance that has properties similar to opioids may help when ceasing opioid consumption.


Terminology

Agonists drugs bind to and trigger receptors in the human body. For example, a dopamine agonist binds to dopamine receptors and produces effects are very similar, or the same as, increasing dopamine levels.

Antagonists bind to receptors and prevent them from being triggered. This results in the influence of a receptor being severely reduced or eliminated. Antagonists don't actually reduce the level of a chemical, but the net effect is the same.

Reuptake Inhibitors slow down the rate at which chemicals are broken down. A serotonin reuptake inhibitor slows down the rate at which serotonin is broken down. This results in increased levels of serotonin available to the body.

Releasing Agents increase the quantities of chemicals that are released in the body. A norepinephrine releasing agent increases the rate that norepinephrine is released. This results in larger quantities of norepinephrine being available to the body.

Selective Agonists activate certain types of a specific receptor and produce results that are similar to increasing the level of the chemical associated with it.

Selective Antagonists keep certain types of a specific receptor from being activated and produce results that are similar to decreasing the level of the chemical associated with it.

Many neurotransmitters have several different types of receptors. Representative of this is GABA-A and GABA-B receptors which will both produce different effects when activated.

A drug that is a selective GABA-A receptor agonist will only bind to and trigger GABA-A receptors.
A drug that is a selective GABA-B receptor antagonist will only bind to and block GABA-B receptors.