NaV 1.7 Blockers
Opioids are a very effective form of pain management medication for most people. The main drawback is they can be addictive, and a tolerance can build. Tolerance means over time you will tend to need higher doses to achieve the same amount of pain relief.
Some of the most effective and frequently encountered opioid medications for relief of moderate to severe pain include substances like hydrocodone, morphine, oxycodone, tramadol. In addition, there are many other medications in this class of drugs.
Low dose naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) can be effective for treating chronic pain and several other maladies. It doesn't work for everyone but might be worth a try, especially if you have no history of daily opioid consumption.
Cannabis products include marijuana, hashish, hash oil. When smoked they can increase the effects of opium based pain management medications.
This mixing of the two pain medications can result in consumption of lesser amounts of opioids to achieve the same amount of pain reduction.
After taking opioids (when you feel them first starting to work) smoking some marijuana, hashish, or hash oil will increase the amount of pain relief provided by the opioid medication.
An alternative is to wait till you feel the pain relieving effect of opioids start to wear off then smoke some marijuana, hashish, or hash oil.
For most people the combination, of cannabis smoking after ingesting an opioid, will increase or extend the pain relieving effect of the opioid medication.
Smoking cannabis products by themselves for pain reduction is not as effective as smoking them in combination with opioids. But smoking cannabis by itself does work for pain reduction in some people.
Eating cannabis products by themselves is a more effective way to treat pain. When ingested in other ways than smoking or vaporizing, some cannabis products provide analgesic action equal to that of small doses of opioids.
Making marijuana butter is here.
Marijuana butter dose size is here.
Making kiff (hashish) butter is here.
Kiff (hashish) butter dose size is here.
Making hash oil butter is here.
Hash oil butter dose size is here.
NaV 1.7 is a sodium channel that is at least partially responsible for transmitting pain messages in the human body. Researchers are working on ways to inhibit NaV 1.7 as a method of pain reduction.
A Yale News story dated February 13, 2014 reported that researchers at Yale University announced that Thrixopelma pruriens, commonly called the Peruvian green velvet tarantula, produces a toxin called ProTx-II that inhibits NaV 1.7 from transmitting pain messages.
Currently there are medical trials being conducted with NaV 1.7 blockers. These drug trials include combining NaV 1.7 blockers with low doses of opioids. If results are positive, NaV 1.7 blockers or inhibitors will become available as pain management medications.
Medications to treat anxiety, often called anti-anxiety, antipanic, or anxiolytic medications, are effective as pain medications for some people. The anti-anxiety drug class includes barbiturates, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, beta-blockers, other medications.
They can reduce pain including that related to anxiety, stress, muscular problems. Sometimes effective by themselves, they can be more effective when taken in small doses with similarly small doses of opioid pain medications.
The combination can help the patient keep the dose sizes of both medications small. The medications in this group that seem to work best at treating pain, in combination with opioids, are benzodiazepines like: alprazolam (xanax), diazepam (valium), lorazepam (ativan).
Those who find this dual medication approach to pain reduction works for them, are able to take smaller doses of opioids than they would if the opioids were being ingested alone. Some anxiety meds also have muscle relaxing properties, which can reduce pain.
A major problem with this combination is the addictive potential. Most people who take opioids strictly for pain are able to ween themselves off of them when their pain is eliminated.
Addiction can happen after a week or two of daily use. Once a person starts taking benzodiazepines daily for more than a year or two, they are nearly impossible to stop. They combination of opioids and benzodiazepines is likely to last a lifetime if practiced on a daily basis for more than 1-2 years.
Even if the pain is eliminated, you probably will not be able to stop taking benzodiazepines, and to a lesser degree opioids. This might not be a major problem for older people, because the remainder of their life will be shorter in comparison.
But if you are in your 20s-30s or younger, you should be aware that once you start this combination it will take extraordinary effort in order to quit, if you maintain it on a daily basis over the course of months or years.
Those who can restrict consumption of this combination to once a week, or less often, will find it much easier to stop. However, if you are young or have a history of longevity in your family, think twice before initiating it on a daily basis for more than a week.
For people that have never tried opioids, kratom might be a valid alternative. Although less so than most opioids, kratom can reduce pain as well as induce euphoria. It can also reduce anxiety and depression.
Some opioid consumers find that kratom can help them through the withdrawal caused when opioids are discontinued after prolonged periods of use. This is more so when opioids were taken in smaller doses.
It is best not to consume any kratom if you take opioids on a regular basis. There is the potential of cross tolerance issues. Also if you think you will want to try kratom at a future date to ease withdrawal, it might be more effective.
Muscle relaxants are often employed to treat things like hyperreflexia, muscle spasms, muscle pain. If pain associated with muscles is a major problem, this type of medication might be your best option.
The muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine when ingested with many opioid pain relievers can increase the painkilling ability of the opioid medication. In addition, cyclobenzaprine possesses muscle relaxant properties itself.
The combination of cyclobenzaprine and an opioid to treat pain may be especially beneficial to people with muscle related issues that cause moderate to severe pain. Cyclobenzaprine can cause sedation, so can opioids.
Carisoprodol, sold under brand names like soma, is also a muscle relaxant. In addition to its muscle relaxant properties it can reduce pain, inhibit anxiety, cause sedation and drowsiness.
However, carisoprodol even when taken by itself, can be physically addictive. Depending on the degree of addiction, carisoprodol may require hospitalization to withdraw from when taken for long periods of time.
When combined with opioid pain medications, carisoprodol can increase the analgesic effect of opioids. If you combine opioids and carisoprodol, do so for short periods of time or switch to cyclobenzaprine or another muscle relaxant.
Nitrous oxide, chemical formula N2O, is more well known by the common name laughing gas. It is a general anaesthetic with pain killing effects that last approximately 1 to 5 minutes per lungful. After effects may last several minutes longer.
Nitrous oxide is occasionally employed by dentists who administer it prior to certain types of dental surgery. Other medical applications where it is used to relieve pain include: during childbirth, cases of reduced blood flow to coronary arteries, trauma.
Although not practical for long term use, for short periods it can be effective if it is available. Depending on the circumstances and how a person responds, 12 breaths of nitrous per hour, for short periods, might not be outrageous.
Nootropics, more commonly called smart drugs, are substances that for most people improve processes related to cognition. Although they are not generally thought of as pain management medications, they can help with mild to moderate pain.
Besides not being as effective as things like opioids, they tend to become less affective as time passes, especially if they are taken on a frequent basis. Also, some of them can be addictive.
Some substances in the nootropic category that are fairly good pain relievers. These include substances like adrafinil, phenibut, racetams, tianeptine. More information about the class of drugs known as nootropics can be found here.
Acetaminophen, also known as paracetamol has been sold under brand names like tylenol and panadol among others. It provides similar pain relief to NSAIDs (see NSAIDs below).
But in contrast to NSAIDs, acetaminophen has no anti-inflammatory properties. Because of this it is not classified in the same category as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Alcohol is an effective pain reliever and has been utilized as such for centuries. It is not as effective as some other methods of pain relief, but may be the only option in some situations.
One of the major drawbacks for some people are the side effects. They include things like addiction and long tern health issues. Also, if enough alcohol is consumed, it can affect the thinking process in a negative way, at least for some individuals.
Although it may be appropriate as a short term pain management medication, things like alcoholism (when it is hard to stop drinking) as well as problems like liver damage can develop after prolonged periods of alcohol intake.
Although their primary use is in the treatment of epileptic seizures, anticonvulsants (also known as antiepileptic or antiseizure drugs) are sometimes utilized to treat chronic pain and nerve pain.
Specific medical conditions that may respond well to anticonvulsants include pain associated with chemotherapy, diabetes, fibromyalgia, herniated disks, shingles.
On April 23, 2009 the FDA approved updated labeling for manufacturers of anticonvulsant drugs to include a warning about an increased risk of suicidal thoughts or actions.
Antidepressants are primarily prescribed as a treatment for depression. In addition to depression, some have been found to be effective as a treatment for chronic pain.
Conditions that can respond well to antidepressants include: arthritis, facial pain, fibromyalgia, lower back pain, pelvic pain, migraine, tension headache.
Antidepressants may also prove helpful to people suffering from nerve pain caused by diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, radiculopathy, shingles, spinal cord injury, stroke.
Over the course of years, chronic pain can cause depression. A treatment for pain that can also treat depression at the same time might be the best option for certain individuals.
Corticosteroids are sometimes employed as pain management medications for their anti-inflammatory properties, especially as a treatment for joint pain and/or inflammation in diseases like arthritis and osteoarthritis.
They are also utilized, in addition to opioid pain medications, to reduce the amount of opioids the patient requires to get pain down to a level where they can function.
Corticosteroids may have side effects that make them better off left alone, more so if they will be taken long term and/or in large doses. If you will be on them, do so for short periods and try to keep the dose size as small as possible.
Plants that contain ergot alkaloids has shown to be especially effective in treating migraine and cluster headaches in some individuals who suffer these often debilitating conditions.
Although not generally considered a pain management medication for other types of pain, the mind altering qualities (of preparations from plants that contain ergot alkaloids) may offer a way of focusing the mind on things other than pain.
These particular plants can only be consumed about once a week, or less often, so they are not a viable option for everyday consumption for people interested in the psychoactive qualities. Everyday ingestion for migraine and cluster headaches might be effective.
Gabapentin is most commonly prescribed treatment to reduce/control seizures, or to relieve nerve pain following shingles.
In addition, it is sometimes employed to treat such things as anxiety disorders, hot flashes, insomnia, neuropathic pain, restless leg syndrome, or other maladies.
When combined with opioids, it can increase the analgesic properties of opioid medications. This can result in the need for a lower opioid dose to provide pain relief, when compared to taking an opioid by itself.
In the year 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved updated product labeling to include a warning about an increased risk of suicidal thoughts or actions for people who take gabapentin.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a class of drugs that provide relief from mild pain. These made provide some relief of aches and pains for children.
Medications in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug group include: aspirin, celecoxib, ibuprofen, magnesium salicylate, naproxen, rofecoxib, valdecoxib, there are many others.
Adults with anything worse than a slight headache or mild pain usually require something stronger. A comprehensive list of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be found here.
In some parts of the globe, prior to the advent of modern medicine, plats from the Solanaceae family were often employed for short term pain relief, as well as other medical applications.
Although these plants are not often consumed for pain relief in modern times, mostly because of side effects, they have a long tradition of being ingested for this purpose.
1 --- With the present state of medicine, drugs that act as opioid receptor agonists are the most effective at reducing pain to manageable levels.
2 --- Dopamine D2 and D5 receptors are thought to play a role in perception of pain. Drugs that act as dopamine D2 or D5 receptor agonist will probably have at least some ability to reduce pain.